Psych: Guide to Parenting

In this presentation we’ll discuss 3 Psychosocial Development Stages, in support of the guidance we will inevitably provide to all children under our spiritual influence, if for a season or a lifetime. The areas we will cover today are:

Initiative vs. Guilt among 3-5 years

Industry vs. Inferiority among 5-12 years

Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion among 12-18 years

Part 1: Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)

What are the key development tasks in this stage? (Stage 4)

The key development task in the psychosocial stage of Initiative vs. Guilt among children of 3-5 years old, is independence. This is the stage in which children of this age group have the need for responsibility and to feel an initiative, with initiative being the step into taking action, and the readiness to act on a particular duty, largely based on imaginary play and early childhood education.

What strategies can parents employ to help their children achieve initiative?

During this stage it’s important for parents and caregivers to allow children to engage in physical and imaginative play. Giving the encouragement and freedom to plan and direct self-initiated activities will give the child a sense of purpose, achievement, and confidence.

What tends to be the most effective discipline strategies at this stage?

At this stage, the discipline strategies that tend to be the most effective are redirection toward good behavior or better choices, natural consequences, teaching healthier alternatives, time-outs for reflection and understanding, offering limited choices, and setting clear limits.

What steps or activities can parents take to share their faith during this stage?

The steps and activities that parents can take to share their faith during this stage is through interactive play. Young children enjoy interaction and can understand emotions.  They also love to play, sing, dance, and listen to stories.  Helping children feel loved and secure when learning about Jesus will help them to feel comfort in their relationship with him.  In addition, interactive play with songs, activities and short stories will help them to experience, understand and enjoy establishing and growing in their faith with the Lord.

Part 2: Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority (5-12 years)

What are the key development tasks in this stage?

In the stage of Industry vs. Inferiority among older children of 5-12 years old their key developmental tasks involve a substantial expansion of their abilities and responsibilities, as they discover their own interests and recognize their talents.  In addition, peers will become more significant to their self-image.   Each of these will become a key source of the confidence for the child.

What strategies can parents employ to help their children achieve industry?

The strategies that parents and caregivers can employ to help their growing children achieve industry (or competence) is by encouragement and positive reinforcement toward their initiative. This will support and increase their self-esteem and confidence in their own ability to use their gifts and achieve their goals. A sense of modesty is important as well through mistakes, correction, and direction.

What tend to be the most effective discipline strategies at this stage?
The most effective discipline strategies at this stage are ones that will help them to make better decisions in the future. This is a good time to help them see things from your perspective.  Structure, positive attention, clear rules, logical and natural consequences, and the earning of privileges are important strategies at maintaining discipline in this stage.

What steps or activities can parents do to help their children understand and/or develop their own faith during this stage?

Older children in this age group are creative and love to learn.  In addition, they have a large capacity for memory, and genuine respect and admiration for others.  At this stage they’re able to connect obedience with morality, which allows for a heartfelt relationship with the Lord.  Utilizing their talents, humor, and self-expression is a great way to encourage growth in their faith. This would include activities that involve music, artwork, reading and writing, and even drama.

Part 3: Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years)

What are the key development tasks in this stage?

The key development task in the psychosocial stage of Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion among 12-18 year olds, is personal identity – the conscious sense of self developed through social interaction, new experiences, and changing ideas.

What strategies can parents employ to help their children achieve identity?

The strategies that parents and loved ones can employ to help their tweens & teens achieve identity in this stage is to encourage self-security, independence, and a sense of direction.  It’s important for loved ones to continue to be a positive influence on their personal perceptions, and with making positive decisions that lead to moral and respectable results and pathways.

What tend to be the most effective discipline strategies at this stage?

At this stage, the most effective discipline strategy is to find balance between allowing your teen to have freedom while still giving sufficient guidance, with the focus on teaching rather than punishment.  Loss of privileges and logical consequence should relate directly to the violated rule.  Natural consequences that are safe to utilize, can be powerful teaching tools that encourage responsible behavior or reaping the consequences.

What steps or activities can parents do to help their children understand and/or develop their own faith during this stage?

The steps and activities that parents and loved ones can do to help their tweens & teens develop their own faith in this stage are to lead by example.  They will learn morals and values by watching and imitating your behaviors, both in word and deed.  Humility is an important factor in this stage.  In addition, it’s important to take advantage of every opportunity as it comes to teach the morals and values within the Christian faith and show them how it directly corelates to situations they may face throughout this developmental stage. Encouraging open communication and giving support during challenging times provides an open door to teaching faith values and applying them to their lives.

 

Thank you everyone.  I hope you enjoyed this presentation as much as I’ve enjoyed putting it together.  God bless you.  

 

Proverbs 22:6 “Train up a child in the way he should go,
And when he is old he will not depart from it.”

Hebrews 12:11 “No discipline seems pleasant at the time, but painful. Later on, however, it produces a harvest of righteousness and peace for those who have been trained by it.”

1 Peter 5:2-3 “Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care, watching over them—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not pursuing dishonest gain, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.”

 

© URWM March 18, 2018

 

REFERENCES

Myers, D. G., & Dewall, C. N. (2016). Exploring Psychology (10th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Mcleod, S. (n.d.). Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Primary School (8-10 Year Olds). (2017, February 13). Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://missionbibleclass.org/understanding-age-groups/older-primary-school-8-10-year-olds/

Erikson’s Stages of Development Chart. (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2018, from http://www.psychologycharts.com/erikson-stages-of-development-chart.html

Amidon, J., Monroe, A., & Ortwein, M. (n.d.). Education, Society, & the K-12 Learner. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/teachereducationx92x1/chapter/eriksons-stages-of-psychosocial-development/

Psychosocial Development / Discipline Techniques. (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://www.verywellmind/verywellfamily.com

The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Text Edition: 2016. Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.